Sunspots, or rather starspots, are cool areas on stars caused by the diversion of electrical energy to drive discharges: -
The Sun cannot be powered from within by thermonuclear processes. Why? Because breaks in the photosphere would then be blisteringly hot and extremely bright from broiling material beneath. That is NOT seen.
In arc mode plasma, the sizes and voltages of the anode tufts depend on the electric current density. The tufts appear and disappear to maintain the right balance between positive ions and electrons in the total current.
In the electric model of stars, anode tufting vanishes where the current density over an area falls off. It’s then insufficiently intense to require the shielding created by the plasma double layer (DL). At these locations, the anode tufting collapses, and we can then see right down into the anode. As no arc mode plasma discharges are occurring, they look darker than the surrounding areas. These are the phenomena called starspots or, in the Sun’s case, sunspots.
The fact that starspots are cool and dark hints that there’s not much of anything going on in a star’s interior. There is no nuclear fusion reactor down there; otherwise, it would be blindingly bright.
Solar Neutrino Flux & Starspots
We know from the Sun that neutrino flux is inversely proportional to the sunspot count. This ratio is understood because the neutrino source is the z-pinch produced nuclear fusion occurring in the DL. Sunspots are the locations where no DL exists, so fusion can’t occur.
In the end, starspots are places where anode tufting is not occurring. They are holes in the stellar photospheres. Indeed, the temperature of a sunspot umbra (the dark bit) is 2000K lower than that of the photosphere’s 5800K.
Forget about the speculation that the lower temperature is due to tangled magnetic fields and strange magnetic waves. Mainstream astroscientists say that these subsurface fields prevent heat from rising to those points! That’s another workaround with ‘strange’ things.
It is because astroscientists must adhere to the gravicentric paradigm that they need to conjure up magical Harry Potter magnetic fields without electricity to explain the existence of starspots. How thick can you get?