What Can The Matter Be?
Do mainstream astroscientists know what matter is? Do they understand what energy is? Do they know that magnetic fields are created by moving electric currents? It seems not. Let us find out why.
Mass is undefined in science, confused with the amount of matter in a body. Most scientists do not understand the most famous equation in physics, E=mc2. Physicists cannot talk about the creation and destruction of matter without knowing what matter really is. Albert Einstein's energy equation tells us the amount of energy held in matter. It means that energy, mass, and the speed of light are the properties of matter.
However, there are supposedly subatomic particles with no intrinsic mass, which is nonsense because massless particles have NO energy, which means they do not exist. Think about that using the above equation.
In the standard particle physics model, mass is provided externally by imaginary Higgs bosons, yet energy is undefined.
There are all kinds of different energies (thermal, light, sound, mechanical, etc.). The Big Bang is said to have originated from pure energy, which is nonsense because energy is about matter in motion, with respect to all other matter.
Energy is that which causes work to be done. It is the result of a moving force.
The thing is that matter has not been defined in terms of internal movement.
No one understands quantum mechanics. It is incompatible with Einstein’s postulated ‘instantaneous no information transfer,’ and it can even depend on the experimenter’s thoughts in some experiments' outcome. An experiment is not a closed system, as physicists like to assume. That is why the quantum realm appears weird.
Light and the electric force are mysteriously transferred through empty space. We know there is a force between two magnets, but what is happening in the space between them?
There has to be a medium through which the electric force is transferred. The pioneers of electromagnetism called it the aether – an electrically polarizable medium filling the Universe. That way, the electric force can be linked linearly and to behave as a longitudinal force.
Applying the speed of light to the electric force makes no sense because electromagnetic radiation is a propagated wave, while forces act instantaneously.
When a rope is tugged, the effect is felt straight away at the other end, but when waved up and down at one end, the wave in the rope takes a while to reach the other end. So, light in the Universe is a slow process.
Now, if aether exists, then space is full rather than being a perfect vacuum. Einstein knew that there has to be aether in space, but his postulates somehow did away with it. He admitted that his theory of relativity would fail if the Earth’s motion through the ether were detected because then his inertial frames of reference would not be equivalent.
Dayton Miller repeated the Michelson-Morley ether experiment far more rigorously and at different elevations and found an aether drift.
The Standard Particle Model
An atom, supposedly the simplest and smallest part of an element that can exist independently, consists of a nucleus of protons and neutrons sitting in a hazy probabilistic fog of electrons. The nucleus is held together by the mysterious short-ranged strong or nuclear force.
The protons and neutrons have an unknown number of weird bits inside that can appear and disappear – which breaks the fundamental physical law that matter can neither be created nor destroyed. Miracles are forbidden in science, are they not?
The weird bits are quarks, up, down, strange, charm, top, and bottom (u, d, s, c, t, b), and their antimatter partners, the antiquarks. There are also gluons (g) that constrain the quarks. Imagine all these particles zipping around inside the nucleus at nearly the speed of light, banging into each other, appearing and disappearing.
The gluons are the strong force's quantized manifestations, and there are different gluon colors and anticolors. Gluons mediate the interactions between the quarks and between themselves and quarks. In other words, gluons are the strong force, but they also experience the strong force! Fortunately for the theorists, all these subatomic entities are in principle unobservable because they can only exist inside the nucleon, which is very convenient.
That then is the standard model of the atom. Notice that there is no mention of how a force manifests as a particle. It is actually a model with no basic definitions to make sense of the words being used. It stifles the imagination.
The electrically neutral atom consists of charged particles, both positive and negative, in equal numbers, together with neutral particles called neutrons.
All subatomic particles are real, with precise locations in space rather than in some probabilistic quantum mechanical fog.
There is a polarizable aether which transmits force and carries light.
The Universe is full of neutral particles that pass through atoms, planets, and stars as if they were not there. These particles are the neutrinos.
Energy is matter in motion relative to the matter in the rest of the Universe.
Mass is a measure of particle distortion rather than the acceleration of subatomic particles in response to the electric forces from all other matter in the Universe. It is like a balloon full of water that distorts when pushed instead of moving.
This is not a closed system approach. It is a unifying relational concept that was first articulated by Ernst Mach.
Neutrons may NOT exist in the nucleus. If that is right, then only two particles are needed to build ALL the elements. That is something to think about.
The thing is, it is expected that the protons in atomic nuclei repel one another. But that does not happen because of ... the presence of neutrons ... so we are told by mainstream astroscientists.
We think the neutrons are there because when a radioactive element decays, we SEE neutrons coming out, each of which then quickly decays to a proton and an electron.
But what if the neutrons are not there in the first place? We just assume they are. Even with neutrons in the nucleus, that does not explain WHY the protons do not repel each other. So, the so-called strong force was invented to make sense of it all.
What if, instead, the electrons, being discrete particles, on average arrange themselves to lie equidistant from the positive protons inside the nucleus?
Because the distance between each proton is greater than that between a proton and a neighboring electron, the attractive force between a proton and an electron will be four times greater than the repulsive force between the protons.
Neutrons might simply be tightly bound metastable resonances of an electron and a proton, split apart shortly after formation.
The simple hypothesis just described means that there might not be any need for the extra complication of the strong force inside the nucleus. It does away with all those stifling sub-nuclear entities.
The Universe is likely much simpler than we think.